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When Should Et Al. Be Used In An In-Text Citation?


In the previous section, we have discussed 5 different in text citation styles you need to know in a journal for 3 authors or less. But, what if the number of authors is more than 3?

If that is the case, you should use et al. in your manuscript. Again, when should et al. be used in an in-text citation? The following examples explain to you when should et al. be used in an in-text citation.

1) APA

Jasmine et al. (2016) reported the …

… (Jasmine et al., 2016).


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2) Chicago

Cindy et al. (2018) stated that …

… (Cindy et al. 2018).


3) Harvard-Anglia 

Sebastian et al. (2016) reported the …

… (Sebastian et al. 2016).


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Jake et al. [2] agreed that…

In [6], the solution…


5) MLA

Robert et al. reported the … (21).

… (Robert et al. 21).


Your Turn

Now, you have an idea on when should et al. be used in an in-text citation. You just need to make sure the format of in-text citation is correct before you submitting your manuscript to the journal.

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Sie Jing is an experienced proofreader and copyeditor with 8+ years of experience proofreading and editing for a variety of clients. He has helped many PhD students to publish their research in international journals with high impact factor. He is also a Certified Internet Marketing Practitioner (CIMP) & Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB).